Catechism of the Catholic Church / Part Two: The Celebration of The Christian Mystery
Section One - The Sacramental Economy
Chapter One - The Paschal Mystery in The Age of The Church
The Church was made manifest to the world on the day of Pentecost by the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit.1 The gift of the Spirit
ushers in a new
era in the "dispensation of the mystery" the age of the Church,
during which Christ manifests, makes present, and communicates his work of
liturgy of his Church, "until he comes."2 In
this age of the
Church Christ now lives and acts in and with his Church, in a new way
appropriate to this new age. He acts through the sacraments in what the common
Tradition of the East and the West calls "the sacramental economy";
this is the communication (or "dispensation") of the fruits of
Christ's Paschal mystery in the celebration of the Church's
therefore important first to explain this "sacramental dispensation"
(chapter one). the nature and essential features of liturgical celebration will
then appear more clearly (chapter two).
THE LITURGY - WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY
I. The Father-Source and Goal of the Liturgy
"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed
us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as he
chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and
blameless before him. He destined us before him in love to be his sons through
Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will, to the praise of his
glorious grace which he freely bestowed on us in the Beloved."3
Blessing is a divine and life-giving action, the source of which is the Father;
his blessing is both word and gift.4
When applied to man, the word
"blessing" means adoration and surrender to his Creator in
From the beginning until the end of time the whole of God's work is a blessing.
From the liturgical poem of the first creation to the canticles of the heavenly
Jerusalem, the inspired authors proclaim the plan of salvation as one vast
From the very beginning God blessed all living beings, especially man and
woman. the covenant with Noah and with all living things renewed this blessing
of fruitfulness despite man's sin which had brought a curse on the ground. But
with Abraham, the divine blessing entered into human history which was moving
toward death, to redirect it toward life, toward its source. By the faith of
"the father of all believers," who embraced the blessing, the history
of salvation is inaugurated.
The divine blessings were made manifest in astonishing and saving events: the
birth of Isaac, the escape from Egypt (Passover and Exodus), the gift of the
promised land, the election of David, the presence of God in the Temple, the
purifying exile, and return of a "small remnant." the Law, the
Prophets, and the Psalms, interwoven in the liturgy of the Chosen People,
recall these divine blessings and at the same time respond to them with
blessings of praise and thanksgiving.
In the Church's liturgy the divine blessing is fully revealed and communicated.
the Father is acknowledged and adored as the source and the end of all the blessings
of creation and salvation. In his Word who became incarnate, died, and rose for
us, he fills us with his blessings. Through his Word, he pours into our hearts
the Gift that contains all gifts, the Holy Spirit.
The dual dimension of the Christian liturgy as a response of faith and love to
the spiritual blessings the Father bestows on us is thus evident. On the one
hand, the Church, united with her Lord and "in the Holy
Spirit,"5 blesses the
Father "for his inexpressible
gift6 in her adoration,
praise, and thanksgiving. On the other hand,
until the consummation of God's plan, the Church never ceases to present to the
Father the offering of his own gifts and to beg him to send the Holy Spirit
upon that offering, upon herself, upon the faithful, and upon the whole world,
so that through communion in the death and resurrection of Christ the Priest,
and by the power of the Spirit, these divine blessings will bring forth the
fruits of life "to the praise of his glorious grace."7
II. Christ's Work in the Liturgy
glorified . . .
"Seated at the right hand of the Father" and pouring out the Holy
Spirit on his Body which is the Church, Christ now acts through the sacraments
he instituted to communicate his grace. the sacraments are perceptible signs
(words and actions) accessible to our human nature. By the action of Christ and
the power of the Holy Spirit they make present efficaciously the grace that
In the liturgy of the Church, it is principally his own Paschal mystery that
Christ signifies and makes present. During his earthly life Jesus announced his
Paschal mystery by his teaching and anticipated it by his actions. When his
Hour comes, he lives out the unique event of history which does not pass away:
Jesus dies, is buried, rises from the dead, and is seated at the right hand of
the Father "once for all."8 His Paschal
mystery is a real
event that occurred in our history, but it is unique: all other historical
events happen once, and then they pass away, swallowed up in the past. the
Paschal mystery of Christ, by contrast, cannot remain only in the past, because
by his death he destroyed death, and all that Christ is - all that he did and
suffered for all men - participates in the divine eternity, and so transcends
all times while being made present in them all. the event of the Cross and
Resurrection abides and draws everything toward life.
. . . from
the time of the Church of the Apostles . . .
"Accordingly, just as Christ was sent by the Father so also he sent the
apostles, filled with the Holy Spirit. This he did so that they might preach
the Gospel to every creature and proclaim that the Son of God by his death and
resurrection had freed us from the power of Satan and from death and brought us
into the Kingdom of his Father. But he also willed that the work of salvation
which they preached should be set in train through the sacrifice and sacraments,
around which the entire liturgical life revolves."9
Thus the risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to
them his power of sanctifying:10 they became
sacramental signs of Christ.
By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their
succession" structures the whole liturgical life of the Church and is
itself sacramental, handed on by the sacrament of Holy Orders.
. . . is
present in the earthly liturgy . . .
"To accomplish so great a work" - the dispensation or communication
of his work of salvation - "Christ is always present in his Church,
especially in her liturgical celebrations. He is present in the Sacrifice of
the Mass not only in the person of his minister, 'the same now offering,
through the ministry of priests, who formerly offered himself on the cross,'
but especially in the Eucharistic species. By his power he is present in the
sacraments so that when anybody baptizes, it is really Christ himself who
baptizes. He is present in his word since it is he himself who speaks when the
holy Scriptures are read in the Church. Lastly, he is present when the Church
prays and sings, for he has promised 'where two or three are gathered together
in my name there am I in the midst of them."'11
"Christ, indeed, always associates the Church with himself in this great
work in which God is perfectly glorified and men are sanctified. the Church is
his beloved Bride who calls to her Lord and through him offers worship to the
. . . which
participates in the liturgy of heaven
"In the earthly liturgy we share in a foretaste of that heavenly liturgy
which is celebrated in the Holy City of Jerusalem toward which we journey as
pilgrims, where Christ is sitting at the right hand of God, Minister of the
sanctuary and of the true tabernacle. With all the warriors of the heavenly
army we sing a hymn of glory to the Lord; venerating the memory of the saints,
we hope for some part and fellowship with them; we eagerly await the Savior,
our Lord Jesus Christ, until he, our life, shall appear and we too will appear
with him in glory."13
III. The Holy Spirit and the Church in the
In the liturgy the Holy Spirit is teacher of the faith of the People of God and
artisan of "God's masterpieces," the sacraments of the New Covenant.
the desire and work of the Spirit in the heart of the Church is that we may
live from the life of the risen Christ. When the Spirit encounters in us the
response of faith which he has aroused in us, he brings about genuine
cooperation. Through it, the liturgy becomes the common work of the Holy Spirit
and the Church.
In this sacramental dispensation of Christ's mystery the Holy Spirit acts in
the same way as at other times in the economy of salvation: he prepares the
Church to encounter her Lord; he recalls and makes Christ manifest to the faith
of the assembly. By his transforming power, he makes the mystery of Christ
present here and now. Finally the Spirit of communion unites the Church to the
life and mission of Christ.
The Holy Spirit prepares for the reception of Christ
In the sacramental economy the Holy Spirit fulfills what was prefigured in the
Old Covenant. Since Christ's Church was "prepared in marvellous fashion in
the history of the people of Israel and in the Old Covenant,"14
The Church's liturgy has retained certain elements of the worship of the Old
Covenant as integral and irreplaceable, adopting them as her own:
-notably, reading the Old Testament;
-praying the Psalms;
-above all, recalling the saving events and significant realities which have
found their fulfillment in the mystery of Christ (promise and covenant, Exodus
and Passover, kingdom and temple, exile and return).
It is on this harmony of the two Testaments that the Paschal catechesis of the
Lord is built,15 and then,
that of the Apostles and the Fathers of the
Church. This catechesis unveils what lay hidden under the letter of the Old
Testament: the mystery of Christ. It is called "typological" because
it reveals the newness of Christ on the basis of the "figures"
(types) which announce him in the deeds, words, and symbols of the first
covenant. By this re-reading in the Spirit of Truth, starting from Christ, the
figures are unveiled.16 Thus
the flood and Noah's ark prefigured
salvation by Baptism,17 as
did the cloud and the crossing of the Red
Sea. Water from the rock was the figure of the spiritual gifts of Christ, and
manna in the desert prefigured the Eucharist, "the true bread from heaven."18
For this reason the Church, especially during Advent and Lent and above all at
the Easter Vigil, re-reads and re-lives the great events of salvation history
in the "today" of her liturgy. But this also demands that catechesis
help the faithful to open themselves to this spiritual understanding of the
economy of salvation as the Church's liturgy reveals it and enables us to live
liturgy and Christian liturgy. A better knowledge of the Jewish people's faith
and religious life as professed and lived even now can help our better
understanding of certain aspects of Christian liturgy. For both Jews and
Christians Sacred Scripture is an essential part of their respective liturgies:
in the proclamation of the Word of God, the response to this word, prayer of
praise and intercession for the living and the dead, invocation of God's mercy.
In its characteristic structure the Liturgy of the Word originates in Jewish
prayer. the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical texts and formularies, as
well as those of our most venerable prayers, including the Lord's Prayer, have
parallels in Jewish prayer. the Eucharistic Prayers also draw their inspiration
from the Jewish tradition. the relationship between Jewish liturgy and
Christian liturgy, but also their differences in content, are particularly
evident in the great feasts of the liturgical year, such as Passover.
Christians and Jews both celebrate the Passover. For Jews, it is the Passover
of history, tending toward the future; for Christians, it is the Passover
fulfilled in the death and Resurrection of Christ, though always in expectation
of its definitive consummation.
In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action, especially the
celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an encounter between Christ
and the Church. the liturgical assembly derives its unity from the
"communion of the Holy Spirit" who gathers the children of God into
the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial, cultural, social -
indeed, all human affinities.
The assembly should prepare itself to encounter its Lord and to become "a
people well disposed." the preparation of hearts is the joint work of the
Holy Spirit and the assembly, especially of its ministers. the grace of the
Holy Spirit seeks to awaken faith, conversion of heart, and adherence to the
Father's will. These dispositions are the precondition both for the reception
of other graces conferred in the celebration itself and the fruits of new life
which the celebration is intended to produce afterward.
Spirit recalls the mystery of Christ
The Spirit and the Church cooperate to manifest Christ and his work of
salvation in the liturgy. Primarily in the Eucharist, and by analogy in the
other sacraments, the liturgy is the memorial of the mystery of salvation. the
Holy Spirit is the Church's living memory.19
The Word of God. the Holy Spirit first recalls the meaning of the salvation
event to the liturgical assembly by giving life to the Word of God, which is
proclaimed so that it may be received and lived:
In the celebration of the
liturgy, Sacred Scripture is extremely important. From it come the lessons that
are read and explained in the homily and the psalms that are sung. It is from
the Scriptures that the prayers, collects, and hymns draw their inspiration and
their force, and that actions and signs derive their meaning.20
The Holy Spirit gives a spiritual understanding of the Word of God to those who
read or hear it, according to the dispositions of their hearts. By means of the
words, actions, and symbols that form the structure of a celebration, the
Spirit puts both the faithful and the ministers into a living relationship with
Christ, the Word and Image of the Father, so that they can live out the meaning
of what they hear, contemplate, and do in the celebration.
"By the saving word of God, faith . . . is nourished in the hearts of
believers. By this faith then the congregation of the faithful begins and
proclamation does not stop with a teaching; it
elicits the response of faith as consent and commitment, directed at the covenant
between God and his people. Once again it is the Holy Spirit who gives the
grace of faith, strengthens it and makes it grow in the community. the
liturgical assembly is first of all a communion in faith.
Anamnesis. the liturgical celebration always refers to God's saving
interventions in history. "The economy of Revelation is realized by deeds
and words which are intrinsically bound up with each other.... (The) words for
their part proclaim the works and bring to light the mystery they
contain."22 In the
Liturgy of the Word the Holy Spirit
"recalls" to the assembly all that Christ has done for us. In keeping
with the nature of liturgical actions and the ritual traditions of the
churches, the celebration "makes a remembrance" of the marvelous
works of God in an anamnesis which may be more or less developed. the Holy
Spirit who thus awakens the memory of the Church then inspires thanksgiving and
Spirit makes present the mystery of Christ
Christian liturgy not only recalls the events that saved us but actualizes
them, makes them present. the Paschal mystery of Christ is celebrated, not
repeated. It is the celebrations that are repeated, and in each celebration
there is an outpouring of the Holy Spirit that makes the unique mystery
The Epiclesis ("invocation upon") is the intercession in which the
priest begs the Father to send the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier, so that the
offerings may become the body and blood of Christ and that the faithful by
receiving them, may themselves become a living offering to God.23
Together with the anamnesis, the epiclesis is at the heart of each sacramental
celebration, most especially of the Eucharist:
You ask how the bread becomes the Body of Christ, and the wine . . . the
Blood of Christ I shall tell you: the Holy Spirit comes upon them and
accomplishes what surpasses every word and thought . . . Let it be enough for you
to understand that it is by the Holy Spirit, just as it was of the Holy Virgin
and by the Holy Spirit that the Lord, through and in himself, took
The Holy Spirit's transforming power in the liturgy hastens the coming of the
kingdom and the consummation of the mystery of salvation. While we wait in hope
he causes us really to anticipate the fullness of communion with the Holy
Trinity. Sent by the Father who hears the epiclesis of the Church, the Spirit
gives life to those who accept him and is, even now, the "guarantee"
of their inheritance.25
communion of the Holy Spirit
In every liturgical action the Holy Spirit is sent in order to bring us into
communion with Christ and so to form his Body. the Holy Spirit is like the sap
of the Father's vine which bears fruit on its branches.26
intimate cooperation of the Holy Spirit and the Church is achieved in the
liturgy. the Spirit who is the Spirit of communion, abides indefectibly in the
Church. For this reason the Church is the great sacrament of divine communion
which gathers God's scattered children together. Communion with the Holy
Trinity and fraternal communion are inseparably the fruit of the Spirit in the
The epiclesis is also a prayer for the full effect of the assembly's communion
with the mystery of Christ. "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the
love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit"28
remain with us always and bear fruit beyond the Eucharistic celebration. the
Church therefore asks the Father to send the Holy Spirit to make the lives of
the faithful a living sacrifice to God by their spiritual transformation into
the image of Christ, by concern for the Church's unity, and by taking part in
her mission through the witness and service of charity.
1110 In the liturgy of the Church,
God the Father is blessed and adored as the source of all the blessings of
creation and salvation with which he has blessed us in his Son, in order to
give us the Spirit of filial adoption.
1111 Christ's work in the
liturgy is sacramental: because his mystery of salvation is made present there
by the power of his Holy Spirit; because his Body, which is the Church, is like
a sacrament (sign and instrument) in which the Holy Spirit dispenses the
mystery of salvation; and because through her liturgical actions the pilgrim
Church already participates, as by a foretaste, in the heavenly liturgy.
1112 The mission of the Holy
Spirit in the liturgy of the Church is to prepare the assembly to encounter
Christ; to recall and manifest Christ to the faith of the assembly; to make the
saving work of Christ present and active by his transforming power; and to make
the gift of communion bear fruit in the Church.
THE PASCHAL MYSTERY IN THE CHURCH'S SACRAMENTS
The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic
sacrifice and the sacraments.29 There are seven
sacraments in the
Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of
the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.30 This article
will discuss what
is common to the Church's seven sacraments from a doctrinal point of view. What
is common to them in terms of their celebration will be presented in the second
chapter, and what is distinctive about each will be the topic of the Section
I. The Sacraments of Christ
"Adhering to the teaching of the Holy Scriptures, to the apostolic
traditions, and to the consensus . . . of the Fathers," we profess that
"the sacraments of the new law were . . . all instituted by Jesus Christ
Jesus' words and actions during his hidden life and public ministry were
already salvific, for they anticipated the power of his Paschal mystery. They
announced and prepared what he was going to give the Church when all was
accomplished. the mysteries of Christ's life are the foundations of what he
would henceforth dispense in the sacraments, through the ministers of his
Church, for "what was visible in our Savior has passed over into his
Sacraments are "powers that comes forth" from the Body of
Christ,33 which is
ever-living and life-giving. They are actions of the
Holy Spirit at work in his Body, the Church. They are "the masterworks of
God" in the new and everlasting covenant.
II. The Sacraments of the Church
As she has done for the canon of Sacred Scripture and for the doctrine of the
faith, the Church, by the power of the Spirit who guides her "into all
truth," has gradually recognized this treasure received from Christ and,
as the faithful steward of God's mysteries, has determined its "dispensation."34
Thus the Church has discerned over the centuries that among liturgical
celebrations there are seven that are, in the strict sense of the term,
sacraments instituted by the Lord.
The sacraments are "of the Church" in the double sense that they are
"by her" and "for her." They are "by the Church,"
for she is the sacrament of Christ's action at work in her through the mission
of the Holy Spirit. They are "for the Church" in the sense that "the
sacraments make the Church,"35
since they manifest and communicate
to men, above all in the Eucharist, the mystery of communion with the God who
is love, One in three persons.
Forming "as it were, one mystical person" with Christ the head, the
Church acts in the sacraments as "an organically structured priestly
Baptism and Confirmation the pRiestly people
is enabled to celebrate the liturgy, while those of the faithful "who have
received Holy Orders, are appointed to nourish the Church with the word and
grace of God in the name of Christ."37
The ordained ministry or ministerial priesthood is at the service of the
baptismal priesthood.38 The
ordained priesthood guarantees that it
really is Christ who acts in the sacraments through the Holy Spirit for the
Church. the saving mission entrusted by the Father to his incarnate Son was
committed to the apostles and through them to their successors: they receive
the Spirit of Jesus to act in his name and in his person.39
ordained minister is the sacramental bond that ties the liturgical action to
what the apostles said and did and, through them, to the words and actions of
Christ, the source and foundation of the sacraments.
The three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders confer, in
addition to grace, a sacramental character or "seal" by which the
Christian shares in Christ's priesthood and is made a member of the Church
according to different states and functions. This configuration to Christ and
to the Church, brought about by the Spirit, is indelible,40
for ever in the Christian as a positive disposition for grace, a promise and
guarantee of divine protection, and as a vocation to divine worship and to the
service of the Church. Therefore these sacraments can never be repeated.
III. The Sacraments of Faith
Christ sent his apostles so that "repentance and forgiveness of sins
should be preached in his name to all nations."41
therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."42
The mission to
baptize, and so the sacramental mission, is implied in the mission to
evangelize, because the sacrament is prepared for by the word of God and by the
faith which is assent to this word:
The People of God is formed
into one in the first place by the Word of the living God.... the preaching of
the Word is required for the sacramental ministry itself, since the sacraments
are sacraments of faith, drawing their origin and nourishment from the
"The purpose of the sacraments is to sanctify men, to build up the Body of
Christ and, finally, to give worship to God. Because they are signs they also
instruct. They not only presuppose faith, but by words and objects they also
nourish, strengthen, and express it. That is why they are called 'sacraments of
The Church's faith precedes the faith of the believer who is invited to adhere
to it. When the Church celebrates the sacraments, she confesses the faith
received from the apostles - whence the ancient saying: lex orandi, lex
credendi (or: legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi according to Prosper of
Aquitaine [5th cent.]).45 The
law of prayer is the law of faith: the
Church believes as she prays. Liturgy is a constitutive element of the holy and
For this reason no sacramental rite may be modified or manipulated at the will
of the minister or the community. Even the supreme authority in the Church may
not change the liturgy arbitrarily, but only in the obedience of faith and with
religious respect for the mystery of the liturgy.
Likewise, since the sacraments express and develop the communion of faith in
the Church, the lex orandi is one of the essential criteria of the dialogue
that seeks to restore the unity of Christians.47
IV. The Sacraments of Salvation
Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they
signify.48 They are
efficacious because in them Christ himself is at
work: it is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to
communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies. the Father always hears
the prayer of his Son's Church which, in the epiclesis of each sacrament,
expresses her faith in the power of the Spirit. As fire transforms into itself
everything it touches, so the Holy Spirit transforms into the divine life
whatever is subjected to his power.
This is the meaning of the Church's affirmation49 that
act ex opere operato (literally: "by the very fact of the action's being
performed"), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished
once for all. It follows that "the sacrament is not wrought by the
righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of
God."50 From the moment
that a sacrament is celebrated in
accordance with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit
acts in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister.
Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of
the one who receives them.
The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are
necessary for salvation.51
"Sacramental grace" is the grace
of the Holy Spirit, given by Christ and proper to each sacrament. the Spirit
heals and transforms those who receive him by conforming them to the Son of
God. the fruit of the sacramental life is that the Spirit of adoption makes the
faithful partakers in the divine nature52
by uniting them in a living
union with the only Son, the Savior.
V. The Sacraments of Eternal Life
The Church celebrates the mystery of her Lord "until he comes," when
God will be "everything to everyone."53
Since the apostolic
age the liturgy has been drawn toward its goal by the Spirit's groaning in the
Church: Marana tha!54 The
liturgy thus shares in Jesus' desire: "I
have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you . . . until it is
fulfilled in the kingdom of God."55 In the
sacraments of Christ
the Church already receives the guarantee of her inheritance and even now
shares in everlasting life, while "awaiting our blessed hope, the
appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Christ
Jesus."56 The "Spirit
and the Bride say, 'Come . . . Come, Lord Jesus!"'57
St. Thomas sums up the various
aspects of sacramental signs: "Therefore a sacrament is a sign that commemorates
what precedes it - Christ's Passion; demonstrates what is accomplished in us
through Christ's Passion - grace; and prefigures what that Passion pledges to
us - future glory."58
1131 The sacraments are
efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church,
by which divine life is dispensed to us. the visible rites by which the
sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each
sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required
1132 The Church celebrates
the sacraments as a priestly community structured by the baptismal priesthood
and the priesthood of ordained ministers.
1133 The Holy Spirit prepares
the faithful for the sacraments by the Word of God and the faith which welcomes
that word in well-disposed hearts. Thus the sacraments strengthen faith and
1134 The fruit of sacramental
life is both personal and ecclesial. For every one of the faithful an the one
hand, this fruit is life for God in Christ Jesus; for the Church, on the other,
it is an increase in charity and in her mission of witness.
1 Cf. SC 6;
1 Cor 11:26.
3 ⇒ Eph
5 ⇒ Lk
6 ⇒ 2
8 ⇒ Heb
7:27; ⇒ 9:12; cf. ⇒ 17:1.
9 SC 6.
10 Cf. ⇒ Jn 20:21-23.
11 SC 7; ⇒ Mt 18:20.
12 SC 7.
13 SC 8; cf. LG
14 LG 2.
15 Cf. DV 14-16; ⇒ Lk 24:13-49.
16 Cf. ⇒ 2 Cor 3:14-16.
17 Cf. ⇒ 1 Pet 3:21.
19 Cf. ⇒ Jn 14:26.
20 SC 24.
21 PO 4.
22 DV 2.
23 Cf. ⇒ Rom 12:1.
24 St. John
Damascene, De fide orth 4, 13: PG 94, 1145A.
25 Cf. ⇒ Eph 1:14; ⇒ 2 Cor 1:22.
26 Cf. ⇒ Jn 15:1-17; ⇒ Gal 5:22.
27 Cf. ⇒ Jn 1:3-7.
28 ⇒ 2
29 Cf. SC 6.
30 Cf. Council of
Lyons II (1274) DS 860; Council of Florence (1439) DS 1310; Council of Trent (1547): DS 1601.
31 Council of Trent
(1547): DS 1600-1601.
32 St. Leo the Great
Sermo. 74, 2: PL 54, 398.
33 Cf. ⇒ Lk 5:17; ⇒ 6:19; ⇒ 8:46.
34 ⇒ Jn
16:13; cf. ⇒ 1 Cor 4:1.
35 St. Augustine, De
civ. Dei, 22, 17: PL 41, 779; cf. St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 64,2 ad 3.
36 LG 11; cf. Pius
XII, Mystici Corporis (1943).
37 LG 11 # 2.
38 Cf. LG 10 #
39 Cf. ⇒ Jn 20:21-23; ⇒ Mt 28:18-20.
40 Cf. Council of
Trent (1547): DS 1609.
41 ⇒ Lk
42 ⇒ Mt
43 PO 4 ## 1,
44 SC 59.
45 Ep. 8.
46 Cf. DV 8.
47 Cf. UR 2;
48 Cf. Council of
Trent (1547): DS 1605; DS 1606.
49 Cf. Council of
Trent (1547): DS 1608.
50 St. Thomas
Aquinas, STh III, 68, 8.
51 Cf. Council of
Trent (1547): DS 1604.
52 Cf. ⇒ 2 Pet 1:4.
53 ⇒ 1
Cor 11:26; ⇒ 15:28.
54 ⇒ 1
55 ⇒ Lk
58 St. Thomas
Aquinas, STh III, 60, 3.
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